Frank Spera

Distinguished Professor Emeritus

Office Location

Webb 2118


Magma Dynamics, Properties of Magmas, Volcanology and Geomaterials


Research applies the methods of fluid dynamics and transport phenomena to study generation, ascent and eruption of magma including interactions between fluids and rocks. Work includes laboratory studies of the viscometric properties of magma as well as studies of the geochemical evolution of magmatic centers. Using methods of Molecular Dynamics to understand the connection between the structure and properties of molten silicates and glasses of significance to petrologic processes.



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G. Ben Martin, M. Ghiorso and F. Spera (2012), Transport properties and equation of state of 1-bar eutectic melt in the system CaAl2Si2O8-CaMgSi2O6 by molecular dynamics simulation, American Mineralogist, Vol. 97, p.1155-1164.


Spera, F.J., 2011, BOOK REVIEW, DIFFUSION IN MINERALS AND MELTS, Youxue Zhang and Daniele J. Cherniak, Editors. (2010) Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, vol. 72, 1038 pages. ISBN: 978-0-939950-86-7. $50.00 (U.S.), American Mineralogist, 96, p.1422

F. Spera, M. Ghiorso and D. Nevins (2011), Structure, thermodynamic and transport properties of liquid MgSiO3: Comparison of molecular models and laboratory results, GCA Vol. 75, p.1272-1296

Fowler, S., Spera, F., Reply to Gualda & Ghiorso Comment on Fowler & Spera (2011). A Metamodel for Crustal Magmatism: Phase Equilibria of Giant Ignimbrites, J. Petrology, Vol. 52 No. 3 p.435-438, doi:10.1093/petrology/egq096.


Fowler, S.J. and Spera, F.J., (2010) A Metamodel for Crustal Magmatism: Phase Equilibria of Giant Ignimbrites, J. Petrology 51(9): 1783-1830 doi:10.1093/petrology/egq039 .


Benedetto De Vivo, Annamaira Lima,Robert J. Bodnar, Alfonsa Milia, Frank J. Spera, Concettina Nunziata, Harvey E. Belkin, Claudia Cannatelli, Il rischio eruzione nei Campi Flegrei. Le Scienze, 496 December 2009, 97-103.

Annamaira Lima, Benedetto De Vivo, Frank J. Spera, Robert J. Bodnar, Alfonsa Milia, Concettina Nunziata, Harvey E. Belkin, Claudia Cannatelli, Thermodynamic model for uplift and deflation episodes (bradyseism) associated with magmatic-hydrothermal activity at the Campi Flegrei (Italy). Earth-Science Reviews 97 (2009) 44-58.

Ghiorso M. and Spera F. (2009). Large scale simulations. In Rev. Mineral. Geochem., vol. 71 (eds. R. Wentzcovitch and L. Stixrude). Mineralogical Society of America, pp. 437-463.


Frank J Spera; Dean Nevins; Mark S. Ghiorso; Ian Cutler, Structure, thermodynamics and transport properties of CaA12Si2O8 liquid. Part I: Molecular dynamics simulations, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 73 (2009) 6918-6936.

Mark S. Ghiorso; Dean Nevins; Ian Cutler; Frank J. Spera, Molecular dynamics studies of CaA12Si2O8 liquid. Part II: Equation of state and a thermodynamic model, Gechimica et Cosmochimica Acta 73 (2009) 6937-6951.

Till, C.B., Gans, P.B., Spera, F.J., MacMillan, I., Blair, K.D., Perils of petrotectonic modeling: A view from southern Sonora, Mexico, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. Vol. 186, p. 160-168 (2009) .

Nevins, D, Spera, FJ, Ghiorso,M., Shear Viscosity and diffusion in liquid MgSiO3: Transport properties and implications for terrestrial planet magma oceans, American Mineralogist, Vol 94, p 975-980, 2009 .

Martin, B, Spera, FJ, Ghiorso,M, Nevins,D, Structure, thermodynamic and transport properties of molten Mg2SiO4: Molecular dynamics simulations and model EOS, American Mineralogist, Vol 94, p 693-703, 2009 .

Spera, F.J., Fowler, S.J. (2009), Conceptual Model For Small-Volume Alkali Basalt Petrogenesis: Implications For Volcanic Hazards At The Proposed Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository, in (editors) Connor, C. B., Chapman, N. A., Connor, L. J., i Volcanic and Tectonic Hazard Assessment for Nuclear Facilities, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.


Sarah J. Fowler and Frank J. Spera, Phase equilibria trigger for explosive volcanic eruptions, GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 35, L08309, doi:10.1029/2008GL033665, 2008.

Pertermann, M., A.G. Whittington, A.M. Hofmeister, F. J. Spera and J. Zayak (2007), "Transport properties of low-sanidine single-crystals, glasses and melts at high temperature" Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 155:689-702, DOI 10.1007/s00410-007 0265-x (2008).


Anabel Frod; Frank J. Spera, Fresh Volcanic Glass Shards in the pottery sherds of the Maya lowlands, Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology, Vol. 4, 2007, pp. 111-118.

D. Nevins, F.J. Spera, , (2007),Accurate computation of shear viscosity from equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations Molecular Simulation, Volume 33, Issue 15 December 2007 , pages 1261 - 1266.

F.J. Spera, Bohrson, W. A., Till, C.B., Ghiorso, M.S., (2007), Partitioning of trace elements among coexisting crystals, melt, and supercritial fluid during isobaric crystallization and melting American Mineralogist, Vol 92, pages 1881-1898 .

Bohrson, W. A., and F. J. Spera (2007), Energy-Constrained echarge, Assimilation, and Fractional Crystallization (EC-RA/É'/FC): A Visual Basic computer code for calculating trace element and isotope variations of open-system magmatic systems, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 8, Q11003, doi:10.1029/2007GC001781 (PDF file).

Bohrson, W. A., and F. J. Spera (2007), Energy-Constrained echarge, Assimilation, and Fractional Crystallization (EC-RA/É'/FC): A Visual Basic computer code for calculating trace element and isotope variations of open-system magmatic systems, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 8, Q11003, doi:10.1029/2007GC001781 (XLS file).

Fowler, Sarah J., Spera, Frank J., Bohrson, Wendy A., Belkin, Harvey, De Vivo, Benedetto, "Phase Equilibria Constraints on the Chemical and Physical Evolution of the Campanian Ignimbrite" , Journal of Petrology, vol 48, num 3, pages 459-493 (2007) doi:10.1093 /petrology/ egl068.


White, Scott M., Crisp, Joy A., Spera, Frank J.,"Long-Term Volumetric Eruption Rates and Magma Budgets",Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, vol 7, num1, doi:10.1029/2005GC001002. 2006.

F.J. Spera, Yuen, D.A., Giles, G., "Tradeoffs inchemical and thermal variations in the post-perovskite phase transistion: Mixed phase regions in the Deep Lower Mantle? Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, 159 (2006) 234-246, doi:10.1016/j.pepi.2006.07.007.


Bohrson, W. A., Spera, F. J., Fowler, S. J., Belkin, H. E., De Vivo, B. & Rolandi, G. (2006). Petrogenesis of the Campanian Ignimbrite:
implications for crystal-melt separation and open-system processes
from major and trace elements and Th isotopic data. In: De Vivo, B.
(ed.) Volcanism in the Campania Plain: Vesuvius, Campi Flegrei and
Ignimbrites. Developments in Volcanology 9, pp. 249-288.


Fowler, S., Bohrson,W., and F.J. Spera, Magmatic Evolution of the Skye Igneous Centre, Western Scotland: Modelling of Assimilation, Recharge and Fractional Crystallization. Journal of Petrology, vol.45, no.12, pp.2481-2505, Dec 2004.

Spera, F.J., and Bohrson,W. (2004) Open-System Magma Chamber Evolution: an Energy-constrained Geochemical Model Incorporating the Effects of Concurrent Eruption, Recharge, Variable Assimilation and Fractional Crystallization . Journal of Petrology, vol.45, no.12, pp.2459-2480,


Schoofs, S., and F.J. Spera, Transition to chaos and flow dynamics in thermochemical convection in porous media, Transport in Porous Media, 50, 179-195, 2003.


Spera, F. J., and W. A. Bohrson (2002), Energy-constrained open-system magmatic processes 3. Energy-Constrained Recharge, Assimilation, and Fractional Crystallization (EC-RAFC), Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 3(12), 8001, doi:10.1029/2002GC000315.


Graham, E. W., et al., Upper-mantle dynamics revealed by helium isotope variations along the southeast Indian ridge. Nature, v. 409, p. 701-703.

Bohrson, W. A., Spera, F. J., Energy-Constrained Open-System Magmatic Processes II: Application of Energy-Constrained Assimilation-Fractional Crystallization (EC-AFC) Model to Magmatic Systems. Journal of Petrology, v. 42, p. 1019-1041.?Figures: Figure1All Other Figures

?Spera, F. J., Bohrson, W. A., Energy-Constrained Open-System Magmatic Processes I: General Model and Energy-Constrained Assimilation and Fractional Crystallization (EC-AFC) Formulation. Journal of Petrology, v. 42, p. 999-1018.?Figures: Figure1All Other Figures

?Stein, D. J., Spera, F. J., Shear Viscosity of Rhyolite-Vapor Emulsions at Magmatic Termperatures by Concentric Cylinder Rheometry. Journal of Volcanological & Geothermal Research, v.113, p.243-258. (2001).

?De Vivo, B., et al., New constraints on the pyroclastic eruptive history of the Campanian volcanic Plain (Italy). Mineralogy and Petrology, v.73, p47- 65, (2001).

?Morgan, N. A., Spera, F. J., A molecular dynamics study of the glass transition in Ca Al2Si2O8: Thermodynamics and tracer diffusion. American Mineralogist,  vol 86, 915-926 (2001).

?Morgan, N. A., Spera, F. J., The Glass Transition, Structural Relaxation and Theories of Viscosity: A Molecular Dynamics Study of Amorphous CaAl2Si2O8. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v.65, p.4019 - 4041, 2001.


Spera, F. J., Stein, D. J., Comment on "Rheology of bubble-bearing magmas" by Lejeune et al. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 175, p. 327-331.

?Spera, F. J., Physical Properties of Magma. In: Encyclopedia of Volcanoes, H. Sigurdsson, Ed. (Academic Press, New York, 2000), p. 171-190.


?Bryce, J. G., Spera, F. J., Stein, D. J., Pressure dependence of self-diffusion in the NaAlO2-SiO2 system: Compositional effects and mechanisms. American Mineralogist, v. 84, p. 345-356.

?Spera, F. J., A Slippery Problem with Explosive Consequences. Science, v. 283, p. 1275-1276.

?Schoofs, S., Spera, F. J., Hansen, U., Chaotic thermohaline convection in low-porosity hydrothermal systems. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 174, p. 213-229.


D. Nevins, F. J. Spera, Molecular dynamics simulations of molten CaAl2Si2O8: Dependence of structure and Properties on Pressure, American Mineralogist, vol. 83, pp. 1220-1230.

J. Bryce, F. Spera, and D. Stein, Pressure dependence of self-diffusion in the NaAlO2-SiO2 system: Compositional effects and Mechanisms. American Mineralogist, Vol. 84, pp. 345-356, 1998.

New high-temperature rotational viscometer for silicate melts, magamatic suspensions and emulsions: D. Stein & F. Spera (1998)


Dependence of self diffusivity on P and T in molten NaAlSi2O6: Comparison of laboratory and Molecular dynamics experiments: J. Byrce, F. Spera (1997) Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 24, pp. 711-715

Simulations of crustal Anatexis: Implications for the growth and differentiation of Continental crust: F. Raia & F. Spera (1997) Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 102 pp. 22629-22648


Molecular dynamics simulations of liquids and glasses in the system NaAlSiO4-SiO2: Physical properties and transport mechanisms: D.J.Stein & F.J.Spera (1996) American Mineralogist vol. 81, pp. 284-302


Stein, D. and Spera, F., Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Liquids and Glasses in the System NaAlSiO4-SiO2. Methodology and Melt Structures, American Mineralogist, 80, 417-431.

Spera, F., Oldenburg, C., Christensen, C. and Todesco, M. Simulations of convection with crystallization in the system KAlSi2O6-CaMgSi2O6: Implications for compositionally zoned magma bodies, American Mineralogist, 80, 1188-1207.

Simulations of convection with crystallization in the system KalSi2O6-CaMgSi2O6: Implications for compositionally zoned magma bodies: F.J.Spera, C.M.Oldenburg, C.Christensen, M.Todesco (1995) American Mineralogist vol. 80, pp. 1188-1207


Trial, A. and Spera, F., Measuring the Multicomponent Diffusion Matrix: Experimental Design and Data Analysis for Silicate Melts, Geochim. et Cosmochim. Acta., 58, 18, 3769-3783.


Cousens, B., Spera, F. and Dobson, P. Post-eruptive alteration of silicic ignimbrites and lavas, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands: Strontuim, neodymium, lead, and oxygen isotopic evidence. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 57,631-640.

Spera, F. and Stark, L. Comment on "Historical Review of a Long-Overlooked Paper by R.A. Daly Concerning the Origin and the Early History of the Moon" by Ralph B. Baldwin and Don Wilhelms. Jour. of Geophysical Research, 98, E2, 3087.

Spera, F and Trial, A, Verificaton of Onsager's Reciprocal Relatons in a molten silicate solution. Science, 259, 204-206.

Stein, D. and Spera, F, Experimental rheometry of melts in system NaAlSiO4-SiO2: Implications for melt structure and dynamics, American Mineral., 78, 710-723.

Rosenberg, N., Spera, F., Haymon, R., The relationship between flow and permeability field in seafloor hydrothermal systems, Earth Planet. Sci Letters, 116, 135-153.

Graham, D. W., Allard, P., Lilburn, C., Spera, F., Lupton, J., Helium isotopes in some historical lavas from Mount Vesuvius, Jour. Volcanol, Geotherm. Res, 58, 359-366.

Stein, D. and Spera, F., Rheometry of a dacitic melt: Experimental results and tests of empirical models for viscosity estimation, Geophy. Res. Letters, 20, 18, 1923-1926.


Spera, F. J. Lunar magma transport phenomena. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 56, 2253-2265.

Rustad, J., Yuen, D. and Spera, F. J. Coordination variability and the structural components of silica glass under high pressures. Chemical Geology, 96, 421-437.

Trial, A. F., Spera, F. J., Yuen, D. and Greer, J. Simulations of magma withdrawal from compositionally zoned bodies. Jour. Geophys. Res., 97, B5, 6713-6733.

Todesco, M. and Spera, F. Stability of a chemically layered upper mantle. Physics of Earth and Planetary Interiors, 71, 85-95.

Oldenburg, C. M. and Spera, F. J. Hybrid model for solidification and convection. Numerical Heat Trans. B, 21, 217-229.

Oldenburg, C. M. and Spera, F. J. Modeling transport processes in nonlinear systems: the example of solidification and convection. IN: Chaotic Processes in the Geological Sciences (ed. D. Yuen). IMA Volume in Mathematics and Its Applications, 41, 221-232, Springer-Verlag.

Rosenberg, N. and Spera, F. Convection in porous media with thermal and chemical buoyancy: A comparison of two models for solute dispersion. IN: Chaotic Processes in the Geological Sciences (ed. D. Yuen). IMA Volume in Mathematics and Its Applications, 41, 319-333, Springer-Verlag.

Stein, D. J. and Spera, F. J. Rheology and microstructure of magmatic emulsions: theory and experiments. Jour. Volcanology and Geotherm. Res., 49, 157-174.

Rosenberg, N. and Spera, F. J. Thermohaline convection in a porous medium heated from below. International Jour. Heat Mass Trans, 35, 5, 1261-1274.


Rustad, J., Yuen, D. and Spera, F. J. The sensitivity of physical and spectral properties of silica glass to variations of interatomic potentials under high pressure. Phy. Earth Planetary Interiors, 65, 210-230.

Oldenburg, C. and Spera, F. J. Numerical modeling of solidification and convection in a viscous pure binary eutectic system. Inter. Jour. Heat Mass Trans., 34, 2107-2121.

Rustad, J., Yuen, D. and Spera, F. J. Molecular dynamics of amorphous silica at very high pressures (135 GPa). Thermodynamics and extraction of structures through analysis of Voronoi polyhedra. Physical Review B, 44, No. 5, 2108-2121.

Rustad, J., Spera, F. and Yuen, D. The statistical geometry of amorphous silica at lower mantle pressures - implications for melting slopes of silicates and anharmonicity. Jour. Geophys. Res., 96, 19665-19673.


Trial, A. F. and Spera, F. J. Mechanisms for the generation of compositional heterogeneities in magma chambers. Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., 10, 353-367.

Borgia, A. and Spera, F. J. Error analysis for reducing noisy wide-gap concentric cylinder rheometric data for non-linear fluids: Theory and applications. Jour. Rheology, 34 (1), 117-136.

Cousens, B., Spera, F. J. and Tilton, G. Isotopic patterns in silicic ignimbrites and lava flows of the Mogan and Lower Fataga formations, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands: Temporal changes in mantle source composition. Earth Planet. Sci. Letters, 96, 319-335.

Clark, S. C. and Spera, F. J. Evolution of the Miocene Tejeda magmatic system, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands. Part II. Petrologic Constraints. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 104, 681-699.

Trigila, R., Spera, F. J. and Aurisicchio, C. The 1983 Mount Etna eruption: Thermochemical and dynamical inferences. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 104, 594-608.

Oldenburg, C., Spera, F. J. and Yuen, D. Self-organization in convective magma mixing. Earth-Science Reviews, 29, 331-348.

Rustad, J., Yuen, D. and Spera, F. J. Molecular dynamics of liquid SiO2 under high pressure. Physical Review A, 42, 3rd series number 4, 2081-2089.

Oldenburg, C. and Spera, F. J. Simulation of phase change and convection in magma bodies, in Heat Transfer in Earth Science Studies (ASME-HTD vol. 149), C. Carrigan and T. Y. Chu, eds., p. 35-42.


Spera, F. J. Thermodynamic modeling of geological materials: Minerals, fluids, melts. Geology, 17, 388. [REVIEW]

Oldenburg, C., Spera, F. J., Yuen, D. and Sewell, G. Dynamic mixing in magma bodies: Theory, simulations and implications. Jour. Geophys. Res., 94, B7, 9215-9236.

Spera, F. J., Oldenburg, C. and Yuen, D. Compositional zonation in magma bodies: Effects of chemical buoyancy and diffusivity in marginal upwelling. University of Minnesota Supercomputer Institute, UMSI 89/53.

Rustad, J., Yuen, D. and Spera, F. Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics of liquid sulfur in Couette flow. Jour. Chem. Phys., 91(6), 3662-3670.

Spera, F. J., Oldenburg, C. and Yuen, D. Magma zonation: Effects of chemical buoyancy and diffusion. Geophy. Res. Letters, 16, 12, 1387-1390.

Rosenberg, N. D., and Spera, F. J. Role of anisotropic and/or layered permeability in hydrothermal convection. Geophys. Res. Letters, 17 (3), 235-238.


Trial, A. F. and Spera, F. J. Natural convection boundary layer flows in isothermal ternary systems: role of diffusive coupling. Int. Jour. Heat Mass Transfer, 31, 941-955.

Spera, F. J., Borgia, A., Strimple, J. and Feigenson, M. Rheology of melts and magmatic suspensions 1. Design and calibration of concentric cylinder viscometer with application to rhyolitic magma. Jour. Geophys. Res., 93, 10273-10294.

Oldenburg, C., Spera, F. J. and Yuen, D. Self-organization and convective magma mixing. University of Minnesota Supercomputer Institute, UMSI 88/138.


Steady state double diffusive convection in magma chambers heated from below in B. O. Mysen (ed.), Magmatic Processes: Physicochemical Principles, Geochemical Society, Special Publication No. 1 (with S. Clark and D. Yuen).

Pyroclastic flows and lavas of the Mogan and Fataga formations, Tejeda Volcano, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Mineral chemistry, intensive parameters, and magma chamber evolution. Contr. Mineral. Petrol., 96, 503-518 (with Joy


Dynamics of magma withdrawal from stratified magma chambers. University of Minnesota Supercomputer Institute, UMSI 86/7 (with D. Yuen, J. Greer and G. Sewell).


Double-diffusive convection in magma chambers: Single or multiple layers. Geophys. Res. Lett., 13, 1, 153-156 (with D. Yuen, S. Clark and H. Hong)

Fluid dynamics of ascending magma and mantle metasomatic fluids. In M. Menzies and C. Hawkesworth (eds.), Mantle Metasomatism. Academic Press, London, p. 1-21.


Dynamics of magma withdrawal from stratified magma chambers. Geology, 14, 723-726 (with D. Yuen, J. Greer and G. Sewell).


Co-mingling of acid and basic magma with implications for the origin of mafic I-type xenoliths: Field and petrochemical relations of an unusual dike complex at Eagle Lake, Sequoia National Park, California, USA. Jour. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 24, 151-178 (with T. Furman).

Parametrizzazione dei percorsi magmatici legati all'eruzione dell'Etna (1983) su base termodinamica e petrologico-sperimentale. Boll. C.N.R.-G.N.V., 1, 12-20 (with C. Aurisicchio and R. Trigila).


Some numerical experiments on the withdrawal of magma from crustal reservoirs. Jour. Geophys. Res., 89, B10, 8222-8236.

Mass transfer rates along vertical walls in magma chambers: Evaluation of the marginal upwelling hypothesis. Nature, 310, 764-767 (with D. Yuen and D. Kemp).

Adiabatic decompression of aqueous solutions: Applications to geology. Geology, 12, 707-710 (with S. A. Wood).

Carbon dioxide in petrogenesis: III. Role of volatiles in the ascent of alkaline magma with special reference to xenolith-bearing mafic lavas. Contr. Mineral. Petrol., 88, 217-232.


Case studies on the origin of basalt. II. The transition from tholeiitic to alkalic volcanism on Kohala Volcano, Hawaii. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 84, 390-405 (with M. Feigenson and A. W. Hofmann).


Thermal boundary layer convection in silicic magma chambers: Effects of temperature-dependent rheology and implications for thermogravitational chemical fractionation. Jour. Geophys. Res., 87, B10, 8755-8767 (with D. Yuen and S. J. Kirschvink).


Carbon dioxide in petrogenesis II. Fluid dynamics of mantle metasomatic processes. Contr. Mineral. Petrol., 77, 56-65.

Eruption volume, periodicity, and caldera area: Relationships and inference on development of compositional zonation in silicic magma chambers. Jour. Volcano. Geother. Res., 11, 169-187 (with J. Crisp).

Dynamical model for temporal variation in magma type and eruption interval at Kohala Volcano, Hawaii. Geology, 9, 531-534 (with M. D. Feigenson).

On the origin of an amphibole-rich vein in a periodotite inclusion from the Lunar Crater Volcanic Field, Nevada, U.S.A. Earth and Planet. Sci. Letters, 56, 343-361 (with S. Bergman and K. Foland).


Melt production by viscous dissipation: Role of heat advection by magma transport. Geophys. Res. Letters, 7, 2, 145-148 (with M. Feigenson).

Carbon dioxide in petrogenesis I. Aspects of the dissolution of CO2 in silicate melts. Contr. Mineral. Petrol., 74, 55-66 (with S. Bergman).

Aspects of magma transport. In R. B. Hargraves (ed.), Physics of Magmatic Processes. Princeton University Press, 232-265.


Thermal evolution of plutons: A parameterized approach. Science, 297, 299-301.


High-temperature properties of silicate liquids: Applications to the equilibration and ascent of basic magma. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. A 286, 373-341 (with I. Carmichael, J. Nicholls, B. J. Wood and S. A. Nelson).


Thermodynamic basis for predicting H2O solubilities in silicate melts and implications for the low velocity zone. Contr. Mineral. Petrol., 45, 175-186.


Earth 102A: Petrology of Igneous Rocks

Earth 123: The Solar System

Earth 159: Origin of the Earth

Earth 114: Geomaterials